Why does turnout vary across space?
I argue that at least some of this variation is due to demographic and socio-economic differences.
The maps on the left show wards with below-average turnout. (The above-average ones are not shown.) On the right I have mapped census tracts in which there is:
- a majority population of first-generation immigrant residents;
- a majority population of visible minority residents, which typically corresponds with more recent immigration; and
- below-average median household income. (These are census tracts in which the average income of all households in the tract is less than the citywide average.)